Located on the Strait of Gibraltar, this popular gateway to Morocco is a swirling jumble of African and European cultures. Dating back to the Phoenicians and Carthaginians, it's been occupied by everyone from the ancient Romans and Arabs to the French and Spanish. Artists such Edgar Degas, Eugène Delacroix, and Henri Matisse found inspiration here in the 1800s and early 1900s. After World War II, it turned into a hotbed of international jetsetters, celebrities, and literary wunderkinds such as Truman Capote and Jack Kerouac. Today, this hilly metropolis has a compact, bustling medina and a European-built Ville Nouvelle neighborhood, where you can savor a calmer side of the city.